PhD Defense by Anne Noer Kolborg

Title: On the origin of metals - understanding the role of mixing in galactic chemical evolution

Abstract: Approximately 98% of the mass of the Universe is made up of Hydrogen and Helium. All the other elements combined make up less than 2% of the total mass. Despite this, these elements are hugely important, many are required for human life (e.g., Carbon, Calcium, Oxygen and Iron) and others are vital for life as we know if (e.g., Lithium in batteries and Gold in jewelry). Common for all these elements is that they were not present at the birth of the Universe, rather they have been forged over time in stellar processes. The distribution of individual elements in our galaxy today tells us that these elements were not evenly distributed early in the history of the Milky Way. The focus of this thesis has been to understand how metals are mixed through galaxies and how the properties of the sites where they are forged imprints on the distribution of those elements.

Thesis: On the origin of metals -Understanding the role of mixing in galactic chemical evolution


  • Steen Hansen, University of Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Institute & Enrico Ramirez-Ruiz, UC Santa Cruz

Censor/ Assessment Committee:

  • Prof Irene Tamborra (University of Copenhagen)
  • Prof Sheila McBreen (University College Dublin)
  • Prof Kate Daniel (University of AZ) 

Post Defense Reception to be held at: Ma-14 at NBI Blegdamsvej 21

Zoom-link for participants whom are not able to attend at Aud M: 

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Meeting ID:

645 1299 1223